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Integrated Writing Program: APA In-text Citations
In-text citations are parenthetical citations that direct readers to the appropriate entry in your reference list. They follow two different types of attribution: direct quotes and paraphrases. Both types require a citation including the author(s)' last name and the date of publication; however, the form varies depending on how much information you include in the text of your paper. If you mention the author's name, you do not need to include it in the citation. Likewise, if you are paraphrasing, you do not need to include page numbers. Page numbers should only be included after a direct quote.
Paraphrase with author named in text:
According to Smith and Stuart (1998), laughter is good for your health.
Paraphrase with author named in parenthetical citation:
Laughter was found to decrease the chance of developing heart disease by nearly 70% (Smith & Stuart, 1998).
Direct quote with author named in text:
Hendriks (2002) defines body image as "a person's mental perception of the shape, size and appearance of his or her body" (p. 107).
Direct quote with author named in parenthetical citation:
"Body image is defined as a person's mental perception of the shape, size and appearance of his or her body" (Hendriks, 2002, p.107).